CORRALS, AND RUNS)
housed in stalls and sheds require soft absorbent bedding, pine wood
chips, and straw. Remove manure and soiled bedding on a regular basis
and handle appropriately to prevent fly infestation and disease transmission.
Pastures… Manure management in pastures depends primarily on getting good distribution
of manure across the pasture. To void manure concentration in isolated
spots in a pasture, distribute grazing evenly. Rotational grazing
is one of the best ways to achieve this goal. Pastures can be split,
and the horses moved back and forth between both parts of the pasture,
to distribute the manure more uniformly. Availability of several watering
facilities and moving feeding facilities periodically will encourage
better manure distribution.
grazing during rainy periods when soils are saturated, to avoid soil
compaction and manure runoff. Restrict access to streams to avoid
manure deposition in or near water bodies. This can be done by fencing
or providing shade away from the streams. Refrain from excessive stocking
rates that lead to overgrazing. Damaging the grass stand increases
manure runoff potential from pastures.
Stockpiling manure is commonly stockpiled prior to use. Adequate storage area
allows for greater flexibility in timing of manure use. Therefore,
be sure you have a large enough storage area to accommodate the manure
produced. Over time, the manure shrinks from decomposition and moisture
loss. Proper site selection for the storage area is important, to
safeguard against surface and ground water contamination. Place stockpiles
at least 150 feet away from surface water (creeks and ponds) and wells.
and maintain grass buffer strips between water bodies and manure piles.
Construct a perimeter ditch or beam around the storage area, if needed,
to prevent runoff onto or off of the area.
Composting produces a relatively dry end-product that is easily handled and
reduces the volume of the manure. Composting at proper temperature
can kill fly eggs and larvae, pathogens and weed seeds. Compost has
less of an odor compared to raw manure and is more easily marketed.
Composted manure acts as a slow release fertilizer and an excellent
that drive the composting process require optimum conditions of temperature,
moisture, oxygen, and carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio. The C:N ratio of
50:1. With the addition of bedding material (high carbon content),
the C:N ratio will be even higher. Therefore, N has to be added to
the manure for it to compost properly. The addition of grass clippings,
hay, or fertilizer should bring the C:N ratio into the optimum range.
When microbes work properly, the compost temperature will be between
120 and 160 F. Cooler temperatures result from a lack of N. When the
composting process is complete, the temperature will cool naturally.
is important to have the right balance of moisture and air for the
microbes to process the manure. The compost should be moist but not
soggy, and may need to be watered or covered with plastic to maintain
moisture. Aerate the compost by turning it regularly. The manure and
bedding particles should be about one-half inch to one and a half
inches in size.
Application - Record keeping is an essential factor in land application
of manure/compost. It is critical to know how much manure/compost
was applied to each field and when it was applied. Analyze manure/compost
regularly and record the lab results for future reference.
not apply manure to land that is highly erodible frozen or saturated.
To protect water sources from manure runoff, do not spread manure
within at least 150 feed of water source (such as a well, creek, or
pond). Incorporate manure into the soil as soon as possible. Incorporating
manure (mixing the manure with the soil) immediately reduces losses
of manure nutrients to runoff and volatilization, and reduces odor
problems associated with manure left on the soil surface.
the manure/compost application rate on crop N needs and available
soil and manure N levels. Test your soil and manure for N levels at
a certified laboratory. In general, the higher a crop yield goal,
the greater the N needs. Irrigated crops also tend to need more N.
no viral diseases are transmitted between horses and humans through
fecal material, but some bacteria and protozoan (such as E.coli and
Giardia) can be transmitted in this manner. In addition, horse manure
runoff into waterways may produce fecal coliform contamination levels
that can be potentially hazardous to fish and anyone who drinks that
- Runoff water from dry lots, pastures, and manure storage or
compost areas carries pollutants (such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and
bacteria) into surface waters. Avoid over irrigation of pastures.
Build berms or trenches to prevent water from entering or leaving
dry lots and manure storage and composing areas.
Control - Excellent fly-breeding conditions occur in mixtures
of manure, spilled feed and decaying bedding. To help eliminate these
areas, remove and spread the manure regularly and prevent accumulation
of their wastes. Composting at proper temperatures inhibits fly development.
Several pesticides can be used on manure piles to kill maggots.
- Manure tends to be high in salts, which when land applied at
excessive rates, contribute to soil salinity. Soil salinity causes
plants to become water stressed or, in extreme cases, die. When manure
is not soil-incorporated, as in applications to pasture, the salts
accumulate on the soil surface unless they are leached into the subsoil.